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An entertaining history of Apple and Macintosh computers, Articles, mobi.ru

26.11.2014

an Entertaining history of Apple and Macintosh computers / Apple and the Apple tree

And yet there is one long-standing dispute, which cannot pass. This «Apple vs. PC «, «Apple against Microsoft » and, ultimately, «Apple against all «. And it’s not that lasts this confrontation is not the first dozen years. It’s not even the extent of the warring parties, although they are not comparable so that we are involuntarily reminded Krylovskiy Pug with an Elephant. It’s all in the instigator of this «Holy war» — began-its not the users, as it happens usually. Beginning her Apple itself. A long time ago, almost throwing the red October the slogan «Think Different «.

All Apple marketing policy, all advertising initiatives and its entire product line for over 20 years based on opposition to the rest of the world IT. To think otherwise, otherwise, to live, work and play — innosti» Apple is at the forefront in all, this is the core of its ideology. But innosti this is not underground, not Linux. «Apple» innosti — elegant, stylish and deliberately simple. And because commercially successful.

However, demonstrative (and sometimes even ostentatious) positioning themselves outside the mainstream is not the only factor that allows the company all these years to remain afloat. Apple is a little more than just a manufacturer of computer equipment. Apple is phenomenon and not afraid of the word, the phenomenon. Phenomenon on the market, and in industry, and in the global media space.

About this phenomenon today we’ll talk.

Apple wedges

What is Apple? In General and in principle is an American company, one of the pioneers of the computer market. The main office is located in the city of Cupertino, California. Own production facilities at Apple a little — most of the products are produced in large plants of other companies, is hosting as ODM orders.

Apple Computer was founded April 1, 1976 by Steve jobs, Ron veynom (former Atari employees) and Steve Wozniak (Hewlett-Packard). 30 years later, in January 2007, the name was shortened and the word «Computer» from it has disappeared. By the way, according to legend (and during all these years there has been a lot) is, frankly, strange for a computer firm name was chosen solely to be higher than the Atari in the phone book.

In the beginning Apple was working on the new market of personal computers and worked successfully. Model Apple II, II , IIe and IIgs, Lisa and Lisa II, produced from 1978 to 1984, a milestone in the history of the PC. The most famous project, the California-based company has become a ruler Macintosh (or Mac). which has been running for 23 years and is constantly updated. During this time, Mac twice already «moved» to new processors. In the 1980s CPU for Apple produced Motorola. in the 1990s and the beginning of the new century IBM. Last year, the company transferred its products on the system architecture Intel and the latest chips Core Duo and Xeon.

Over the past decade, the company’s success has not always been unconditional, and position in the market is not always stable. By 1985, from senior management Apple has eliminated all of its founders. Ron Wayne left the two Steve’s, 12 days after the registration of a firm to regret it later had only himself to Wayne. But the loss of technical genius Wozniak and genius marketing jobs after so many years of fruitful work was for the company irreparable.

However, in the 1990-ies account for the formation of the Macintosh as the leading platform for design and printing. Around the same time Apple tries himself in the market mobile computers. if Mac Portable (1989) and did not «bomb», released two years later PowerBook enjoyed excellent popularity. And in 1993 the company introduced a fundamentally new class of devices — world’s first PDA called messagepad, was developed (project Newton). Unfortunately, consumers were not ready to accept this idea — until «boom PDA» remained for seven years.

And yet the new leadership did not withstand the pressure of competitors in the head with Microsoft and slowly but surely took the position. In 1996, Apple was on the verge of bankruptcy and almost completely lost market share. The situation was saved by Steve jobs returned to the company, first as a consultant, and then — Executive Director. It is from 1997 began the second ascent of «Apple». iMac, iBook and iPod — the three pillars, which in 2001 stood on a turtle Mac OS X. — steel main support Apple in the new century.

the First quarter of fiscal 2007, Apple has finished with the record. 7.1 billion U.S. dollars of revenue net income 1 billion — almost twice more than in the first quarter of last year. During this period of time the company has put 1606000 Macintosh and 21066000 iPod (and tomellini iPod was sold recently — April 10). 42% of total revenue Apple has made international sales.

Today, the company stands on his feet is stronger than ever. In the actual model number of the manufacturer is really bright and successful products from professional budget laptops to desktops. And, of course, the iPod is the most popular MP3 player in the world. Waiting for iPhone. And new surprises from Big Steve.

What’s so special about Apple? How is it so many years manages to stay afloat, to succeed and to compete with Microsoft? Why the PC is still not killed Mac? The company attracts users?

«Apple Phenomenon «, as any phenomenon of this magnitude should be considered in parts. And no need to be analytical genius, order them here to highlight. Here they are, seven «Apple slices».

In the early days of personal computers in the founding of Apple Computers — about design PC as such was not and conversation. This product was not mass, and its consumers, in General, it still looks like their computer. A question about weight and size stood much sharper. By the way, one of the famous sayings of Steve jobs which in English sounds like this: «I don’t trust the computer that can’t lift it.

a few years Later the situation has changed dramatically. PC sales grew like an avalanche (and most of them jobs could be trusted), grew and competition. And that’s when Apple realized that the computer, which looks better, will be better to buy. Attention to the design of their products has become one of the key strategies of the company. As an example, the first model of the Macintosh, released in 1984, against the background of competitors new product looked just perfect.

Today, Apple is at the forefront of IT-fashion — to compete with her can only Sony. In recent years Apple devices has become the «industry icons». Apple Style — the most copied on the market: even large companies do not hesitate to borrow the successful discovery. Small Chinese firms altogether shameless peretirayut the design of the device as a whole. Go for fun in any beauty of digital technology, and count the number of clones iPod nano standing there at the window.

Behind this one man is a genius industrial design Jonathan Ive. One of the best designers in the world, he joined Apple in 1992 and his first job was the PDA messagepad, was developed. He scored all three generations of iMac, iPods and both series Apple laptop, it has created a unique corporate style Apple. And Apple is obliged Quince, perhaps no less than Steve jobs.

Platform

Computer world came to the division of labor for a long time. Iron make one, software — other. The user collects both these elements together.

Apple went on his way. Apple device — a hardware-software complex and solid solution. Buying an Apple computer, the person can be sure that this hardware configuration running these software works best. Iron and software in this case organic and inseparable. Together they form a Mac .

Operating system Apple has always been considered best — in particular, the California company first put on the market of operating systems with a graphical interface. Window system did not Microsoft. However, here the issue is rather slippery — evil tongues say that Apple copied the idea of Windows from Xerox. And the objection here is only one: have you ever seen a computer with the operating system from Xerox?

Mac OS X or «ten» is the ultimate evolution of the Apple OS. Released to the market in 2001 (along with Windows XP), this is based on Unix software environment relevant today. Updated it three times already (for 6 years, users were offered a version of Cheetah, Jaguar, Pantera and Tiger). A new revision of Mac OS X version 10.5 and under the code name Leopard will be released on the market a few days ago — she is the main competitor to Windows Vista .

by the Way, Vista is almost all the key innovations of this operating system were implemented in Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger two years ago. And the system end-to-end search, and «gadgets» (on the Macintosh, they are called «widgets»), and updated UI graphics chip. Yes and design of Vista, in General, again.

What good is Mac OS X? Convenience and ease — get used to it you can literally per day. Stability — «drop» it is very difficult. Security. Excellent, truly, Apple design (Aqua interface today one way or another copy seems to be all). Integrated application development environment. And, of course, package free applications iLife. which are equipped with all Mac computers.

iLife — a set of multimedia programs on all occasions. iPhoto is a convenient viewer graphics. iTunes is a great media player files. iWeb is a tool to create a site in three clicks». GarageBand is quite advanced audio synthesizer. Finally, iMovie and iDVD programs for video editing and DVD creation.

the principle Macintosh — it just works. Everything you need to get it out of the box and enable. That’s why Mac is the best choice for computer novices and casual users. He is ready to use. It is not necessary to configure, it is not necessary to install additional applications — everything you need is already there.

lifestyle

Apple is a spirit, ideology and style of life. No computer company has not been able to create together and the whole subculture of users. The epithet «Mac user»is, in principle, unrelated to hardware and software. This way of thinking and value system — they need to understand and feel. This «Path Mac » Macintosh Way .

the Author of this definition psychologist guy Kawasaki. former Apple employee and most famous «Mac Evangelist». Macintosh Way was the title of his book published in the USA in 1989 and later became an international bestseller. The Macintosh Way, «the art of doing the right things» — the philosophy of Apple and its users.

Work with pleasure. To think otherwise. During prioritizes creativity and unconventional approach. The desire and ability to change the world for the better — that’s what the Macintosh Way.

Apple hardware is the issue, perhaps the most acute in this whole topic. More than 10 years all the Apple computers were built on developed in conjunction with the IBM system architecture Power PC. C traditional x86 she, of course, had nothing to do. That, however, did not prevent her to stay competitive — at first she was in no way inferior to their counterparts from Intel or AMD.

But a few years ago it became obvious that the development platform is stalled. A powerful Power PC G5. the processor of the fifth generation, for example, failed to use laptops — it was too hot.

Output from Apple was not. Time to market was a key industry was preparing for a qualitative leap forward. Creating a new architecture or a radical reworking of the former would require a huge amount of time and money. And then the company decided on a landmark step. In 2006 began the transition of Macintosh computers to Intel processors.

Apple Fans took this event is ambiguous. On the one hand, Mac moved to the most advanced technological base. On the other, changed its basic principle. What kind of innosti, if one foot has come in Wintel (the etymology of the worst for any ideological Mac-user of the word, I think, quite clear)? Here it is up to the near sacrilege. Once the processor is Intel, so Windows on Mac you can now run? And directly, without emulator?

you Can. And, moreover, very simple. Need any Mac with an Intel processor, the beta version of Boot Camp (freely available on the official Apple site) and the distribution of Windows. In the new Mac OS X Leopard, this feature will be standard.

Treason? It seems to me, no. Rather, the extension of the target audience. I know many people who do not mind to try Mac, but do not dare to buy it. Now to buy an Apple computer you can safely — if the user suddenly radically’t like Mac OS, you can always replace the usual Windows. Besides, nobody bothers to keep on the PC both of these operating systems.

Model number Mac evolved all 23 years of its existence, but was finally formed relatively recently. Budget price segment took Mac mini (most affordable Mac ever in the history of the company). In niche solutions for home, in the price range from medium to high, are iMac is the computer in the form factor monoblock. Closes the line series professional workstations Mac Pro .

Apple Laptops also divorced professional and consumer lines. MacBook Pro (up to 2006 — PowerBook) with diagonal matrices 15″ and 17″ — expensive solutions for the real masters of digital art. Trinadtsatidyuymovy MacBook (iBook in the past) is available laptops for all occasions.

professional Tool

it Is believed that software for Macintosh is not very much. Fact — software for PC than for Mac. Obvious and apparent shortage of freeware. All this is one of the main arguments in favor of the PC.

However, many professionals in graphic design, video editing and sound recording traditionally choose Mac. For example, the famous Adobe software products are developed under Mac and then ported to PC. In the sleeve Apple has another trump card — line of professional monitors. In exchange for a great Apple Cinema HD Display (diagonal) 30’ and resolution h many designers would lay the soul.

the company Offers unique software, which is deservedly considered the best in the industry. This professional package for video editing Final Cut Studio, and program for music creation and sound processing Logic Pro, and a powerful tool for 3D animation and digital compositing called Shake. For PC these applications are not available.

Advertising, PR and marketing

Apple has no equal. So bright, loud and not advertised effectively no manufacturer of computer equipment. Promotional initiatives and PR moves from Cupertino become legendary and are included in the textbooks. They are equal, they are trying to copy. In vain — Steve jobs, Marshal all the most ambitious campaigns Apple exists in the singular.

Canonical has become a promotional video of the very first Macintosh, filmed by the famous Director Ridley Scott. Shown only once — during the broadcast of the finals of the U.S. baseball — he blew the audience and provided the computer is phenomenal sales. Loosely based on the novel by George Orwell «1984». the clip clearly contrasted Apple its competitors, and Mac — the rest of the PC.

Finally, this concept was formed 14 years later. Advertising campaign «Think Different» («Think differently»). which began with the launch of the first iMac, aptly and succinctly expressed the idea of the Macintosh Way.

recently, Apple has launched a series of rollers «Get a Mac». Frames from them and decorated this material. Technically advertising is very simple: two characters, Mac (Justin long) and PC(John Hodgman) beat various computer topics. Information security, upgrades, technical support and, of course, the Macintosh is superior to PC at all.

Some commercials Apple you can see on our drive, we recommend to all lovers of really high quality and creative advertising.

the Hype around iPhone — the long-awaited phone from Apple is also a kind of phenomenon. January 10, 2007 the news of his presentation went through all media channels. iPhone appeared on the front page of the Times. iPhone flashed all news of the Russian Federal TV channels. The storm, which raised the iPhone on the Network, it is difficult even to describe. In the end, mobile phone, out of which only announced for two months got free advertising on $400 million. And, actually, we only slightly increased this amount.

Become a leader in the PC market, Apple and did not work. But in the market of personal audio successes California company much greater. A hundred million MP3 players over six years — this achievement can not boast of any one competitor. Comments are unnecessary here. the iPod has become the most popular and profitable project, the main source of its income. Even in Russia, Apple managed to steal the 13% of the market of digital audio .

Loves me not

Emotion — almost half of Apple as a brand. Yabloko take sight on feelings and work on the relationship. And this winning strategy is only as dangerous. All Apple products — whether it’s «metal» or program — has the strongest emotional charge. This allows it to clear to get to their consumers. Apple love. But it also causes a rejection from others. Apple is not love .

by the Way, the ambiguous attitude towards Apple and the Macintosh platform, probably in Russia. Reasons here can be called a lot. Unique computer mentality. Irrational distrust of the average Russian user to any non-standard solutions. In the end, hard pricing Apple IMC Russia, the Russian representative office of the company.

the Paradox, but Apple like and don’t like exactly the same reasons. For quite a long time talking with their mothers by macintoshthe and ardent opponents of «apples» in any (up to the iPod!) manifestations, I such reasons counted exactly three.

first, it is believed that any technique Apple obviously more expensive their less eminent analogues (about Sony in this case usually forget). Pierniki reasonably indicate on a laptop with the same specifications and a reasonable question: «why not?». The yablokovodov in response, cause a whole heap of reasons: «for quality you have to pay» up to «anything you don’t understand.» Although actually paid (or overpaid — that’s someone you like) first of all at the design. brand and the very «Apple spice» — emotional. Does the status factor (remember «Generation P» Pelevin and wow-impulses). The high price of the device — key image point, and it’s obvious.

the Second stumbling block is the platform Macintosh and Mac OS. Here all is clear: about 70% of users of personal computers lack logo «Windows» on the boot screen causes hysteria. The average accountant calls the system administrator does not find the label «Basket» at the usual place. And then suddenly a new software environment — it is a culture shock. But let the heroes admin anecdotes alone.

what reproach Mac OS sane users PC? In a relatively a small amount of software. The difficulties of integration into the infrastructure of a large local network and works in cooperation with several PC. The specifics of the file system, which is different from Windows and so deeply heretical. The list is far from complete.

Than covered makintoshniki? Historical note: supposedly, the Windows-we Big Steve gave, and not a Large bill. The last of them, by and large, expropriated. Mac users — they are for historical justice. Hot stud: Mac OS, podi, and more comfortable, and more stable, and just more beautiful Windows. And viruses for it almost never write. Although, if someone will tell you that Mac never crashes», you know — before you the storyteller cleaner of the two Grimm brothers together. Or just a man, never for Mac is not sitting. Finally, it is rational remark: a standard set of Mac OS overlapping overlaps the needs of today’s PC user. And install something «instead of» is not only not necessary, but doesn’t want to.

Both sides, as usual, crystal, right.

the Third reason can hardly be called serious, or at least rational. Here works exclusively Russian mentality. The owner of any device from Apple, some considered to be a snob in heavy, almost clinical manner. While most Macintosh users simply get pleasure from iron, and from the platform. Yes, and firmly believe that all pierniki — martyrs, the martyrs and the hostages terrible Microsoft.

Great move

is it Worth to switch from PC to Mac? Worth it. But not everything.

as a home computer Macintosh platform ideal. Powerful built-in tools for working with multimedia files, convenient and beautiful interface, in the end, the perfect touch to the interior — all this Apple. Good Mac for everyday tasks such as office applications, Internet, e-mail, work with images. Will help professionals design, video and sound. However, they know that without us.

With all this objectively Mac unable to completely replace PC. You can not find the software you need. A large number of specialised applications (1C «Accounting», so far beyond the example not to go) for Mac not released at all. Of course, for Mac OS for a long time already there are Windows emulators, and now OS from Microsoft on Mac you can run without them. However, this is not an option.

for Advanced users who remember by heart all registry keys Windows XP, or perhaps avid gamers Macintosh strictly contraindicated. If you often work in a big network of PC — Mac is also not for you. Although you can try, of course, possible.

Here we will try. And in the following rooms will be glad to tell you about the results. The transition from PC to Mac in details: details, features and problems. Don’t miss it!

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