ICT in education and science
Apple — as Mature petite
In the 70s, when everyone was literally overwhelmed with ideas of progress, it would be strange if in the wilds of Silicon valley’s two friends came up with the idea to create the so-called «micro». Moreover, they were not the pioneers in this area?- in 1975 were released Altair 8800 (MITS), IMSAI 8080?- improved «Altair» (IMSAI), Jupiter II (Wavamate), M6800 (Southwest Technical Products) and JOLT (Microcomputer Associates).
At that time the computer was huge and expensive machine that is used exclusively in industrial areas and major research centers, and serious manufacturers such as Xerox, Atari, Hewlett-Packard, with a big skeptical about the prospect of their production for personal use. Buyers of these computers could only technically competent mad, because that was the name of the computer, was a set of «DIY». For example, the Altair 8800 was sold without the software and the operating system, and programming the machine was forced by the buyer. The entire Assembly and soldering also had to perform the user, it also has been proposed to connect an additional chip storage device, teletype or a TV monitor. By the end of the build process, the cost of this dubious pleasure was about $3000 (the initial set of items was worth $ 375). But people living in Silicon Valley,?- this is, for the most part, manic techies, detached from reality, the Americans call them «nerdy», and factors such as economic feasibility, meant for them, frankly, not much.
Silicon valley?- a chain of cities in the shape of the letter J, starting from San Francisco and makes a loop to the Gulf on the East of San Jose. It includes 18 cities including mountain view, where he was born one of the founders of Apple?- Steve jobs (Steve Jobs), and San Jose?- the place where he lived and worked the other people who made the effort to create Apple?- Steve Wozniak (Steve Wozniak).
Steve Wozniak, in addition to having a wonderful family, had a remarkable mind, and was a technical center for the future of the company, while Steve jobs was the one who drew from ideas Wozniak benefit.
Despite the four year age difference, they were friends for many years, they shared a common interest in electronics and a lack of interest in youth hanging out, making friends with outsiders in a circle of peers?- typical «nerds».
Fans of secrets of the blue boxes…
There is a legend about how did Apple. Supposedly it all started with the fact that while in College, 4 years before the introduction of the first Apple computer, a caring mother of Steve Wozniak, Mrs. Wozniak, sent the son of an article from the magazine ’Esquire» (Esquire), called «the Mystery of the blue boxes. The mysterious title of hiding a message stating that some hackers with the help of special equipment?- not very clever?- bypass the phone system protection company Bell that allows you to call anywhere in the world for free. Moreover, the mysterious attackers entered in the government communication network, which served the law enforcement system of the US Armed forces and even the CIA. A sort of prototype of the modern hackers so delighted young Steve that he immediately decided to gather a blue box (Blue Box). After four months of hard work with the help of the jobs he drawings from magazines gathered the same signal generator, which provides the opportunity to mislead the electronics of the telephone stations. But to achieve sustainable work was difficult, and Wozniak designed a small digital device that worked from devotionto batteries. Since then the friends have fun, nezvanova in weather Bureau Australia?- to find out the summary, trezona night in Japan?- to listen inarticulate abuse awakened Asians, ordering phone sermons from the Vatican, as well as directing your call through Europe on the phone in the next room?- so, giggling, to say «Hey!» in one the phone and hear his voice in another few seconds. Enterprising jobs put an end to their unpretentious entertainment: he purposed to make money on the skills of the other. Details for blue boxes cost $40, to the Assembly diagram near Wozniak took not more than an hour. Jobs has made a Strong offer: he (jobs) pay components, Wozniak did the installation, they were selling the device for $150, and the profits were shared equally. Wozniak without hesitation agreed. The interests of the youth of that time were apparently similar, and soon became friends often notice coming from one, then from another room men’s hostel: they were certainly selling their devices. Women’s case they are ignored, ’because they thought girls disinterested»but, most likely, two Steve were not in the best relations with the opposite sex. But they had plenty of time on technical initiatives. A little later they began to sell boxes in southern California?- through a friend, who agreed to be their representative in the region Beverly hills. Friends managed to sell more than two hundred devices, while Bell has not improved its switching system, and the blue boxes are useless. Moreover, they do not have to answer for their achievements, but some buyers technical innovations condemned?- for example, a professional swindler Bernie of Kornfeld and musician IKE Turner.
no one knew it?- the creators of Apple. And they were expelled from the College.
the Blue box was the first step of the two Steve’s towards the creation of Apple.
Apparently, the success turned their heads. Wozniak failed session. Jobs in General began to fall out of reality. He settled in avant-garde student campus in Oregon, became addicted to drugs (LSD and marijuana), was fond of studying various religions and philosophy: Zen Buddhism, the ideology of the commune, and even got a guru. Rumor had it that he then joined doctrine Arnold Area, Prussian, who lived in the nineteenth century, declared that the expulsion from the body musk, gases and «excessive excrement» there is the true path to health, happiness and mental stability. It is clear that very soon the jobs out of College, and he returned home to his parents. Saying that once worked at Hewlett-Packard, jobs managed to get not the worst job in the company Atari to create the first video game ’Pongo»?- for $5 per hour. He had to develop a modification of the «Pongo», which was added to the wall, built of bricks disappear if they hit. Atari had paid the premium, when the designer was able to reduce the number of chips in the game, as this decreased the cost of production. Wozniak has helped others do the innovation proposal, but in team jobs are not particularly liked, and immediately after receiving the prize in the $7000 he went back to Oregon. Wozniak, who lived with his parents after graduating from Berkeley, led a more relaxed lifestyle. He got a job at Hewlett-Packard, and began to visit the Computer club of electronics enthusiasts in Menlo Park ?- Homebrew Computer Club. Twice a month at the club gathered a few dozen engineers, programmers and technicians, among other things, they discussed the problems of design of small computers.
Poverty?- not a sin, and the cause of mental activity
In January 1975 the community of computer fans stirred the long-awaited news?- was released Altair 8800. Wozniak, like any enthusiastic person, because Polubarinova relationship to money and obsession with technology has never been very rich. Money to buy it ’Altair» he would have raked up, but to bring it in proper form?- hardly. And he decided to build his own computer. He found the cheapest chip?- for $20 (originally wanted $400) at the output of 1 MHz. More precisely, he has handled 1 million operations per second, but not the instructions. For processing one instruction went 2 and sometimes three cycles. This was due to the fact that the processor was not programmable. The most expensive in the new computer was the keyboard, it was worth $60. Most components were provided with jobs. And they, in turn, «borrowed» in the company of Atari. Get parts any ways it was a good tradition of the first computer fans. Methods?- any, from trips to the city dump to direct theft of burglary. So Atari has increased the number of guards, when he discovered that the company Rasheeda printed circuit boards and chips for $ 800 daily.
Wozniak has programmed his computer at work?- at that time, HP employees were recorded in order to work at the computer, about 80 people in one car. It is worth noting that before Wozniak didn’t know what a microprocessor was not involved in the programming. Specifically for the Apple he had delved into the mountains of technical documentation, learned «basic» and even wrote his own version of this programming language?- without floating point, prevented him.
Apples, first grade
He picked up the computer for themselves, but jobs, by that time even visited Tibet in search of spiritual enlightenment, lived under the slogan «Money. Get rich or die trying. And jobs had taken up the promotion of computer on the market?- and Atari and Hewlett-Packard already abandoned offspring Wozniak. Jobs offered Wozniak to create their own computer company. In the early 70’s jobs, working at Atari, he met and became friends with the new senior developer this company Ron venom. Jobs invited him to the company and was offered 10%. It was all very serious, but Wayne had accepted the invitation.
the idea for the title belongs to the jobs?- sentimental memories of the commune and peasant life in Oregon gave him no peace. More sane, but less persistent Wozniak suggested names like «Ekzekuter’ or ‘matrix electronics» (Executek, Matrix Electronics). However, the names of the jobs was another plus?- one of the first places in the phone book.
Official Treaty establishing the company they signed on 1 April 1976. Wozniak worked at Hewlett-Packard, jobs and Wayne?- on the Atari, and at night they gathered in the garage of jobs and continued the creation of the Apple I?- Wayne wrote technical documentation and developed the first trademark of the company.
To create the first instances of the Apple I, jobs sold his Volkswagen minibus, and Wozniak?- programmable calculator Hewlett-Packard. The proceeds amounted to $ 1 $ 350. Evil tongues say that the jobs by the time possessed a very considerable sum on the account, but did not give their material success, so I sold the property.
the jobs were in search of potential clients. He turned his attention to the computer club, which was attended by Wozniak. And almost forced to introduce new computer club members. With trembling hands Wozniak was holding the PCB and modestly with her eyes dropped to the floor, something talked quietly. Not surprisingly, that was a little interested. However, Steam and Wayne lucky owner of the first city CompUSA Byte Shop Floor Terrell ordered 50 machines, offering $500 for each. And as a good businessman, he insisted that computers were finished product, because I understand how uncomfortable it is for buyers to collect their parts.
The biggest loser in the history of Apple
This order was both a huge success, and the difficulty for the young company: jobs got into debt to pay for components. Wayne, in virtue of their life experiences and the many failures did not believe that Terrell will pay for the order, and gave their 10% Steam for $800. His instinct did not deceive him?- he suffered the biggest collapse in his life. His package in 10% to 1991 would cost 875 million dollars.
in order to fulfill the order in time, Trinity was in the garage of jobs permanently connected to the production of even relatives. A month later, after work, they calculated the costs, and, apparently, under the influence of jobs, set a price for the Apple I in 666 dollars 66 cents.
Terrel bought the whole party, however, he had to hire additional specialist buildings to bring computers to the divine kind. Apple I had long been gathering dust on the shelves, but gradually they were sold out.
Michurin could not even dream
Meanwhile, Wozniak already dreamed of the idea of the Apple II, jobs looked for the investor, because of the money obtained from the sale of Apple I, was barely enough to pay his debts.
Entrepreneur don Valentino introduced jobs with Mike Markellou. Marcella at that time retired from active business operations after a successful transaction with shares of Intel and Fairchild Semiconductor. He helped jobs to develop a business plan, invested in the company 92 000 dollars from the personal savings and provided a credit line of $ 250,000 in the Bank of America. 3 January 1977 Apple Computer was officially registered. In order to avoid legal problems in the future partnership between Ron Wayne was bought for 5 $ 308 96 cents, a third of this amount was issued in the form of a cheque. Wayne, voluntarily left the company the year before, did not expect such large payouts and was very pleased. But we know that the joy was premature.
just As the Apple II and brought Steam deserved glory. It was the first computer with color display, sound, programming in BASIC, free slots in panel (idea Wozniak), molded plastic case (the idea of jobs), were later released drives, which further boosted the sales.
By 1980, the company has already worked with several thousand employees, products enjoyed great popularity and was exported. Energy Steve was so strong that internal PR was not needed?- the atmosphere in the company was working in all senses of this word, Apple has attracted professionals who called themselves «people with six blood» (because of the Apple logo), and wore t-shirts with the inscription: «Working 90 hours a week and proud of it.
one Small step for man…
History of jobs and Wozniak?- nearly a sample of the American dream, and a good example of separation of functions of the financial and industrial management. Two Steam lucky?- they were in the right place at the right time.
But for the entire industry Apple computers meant much more than just commercially successful product of the individual firm?- it so happened that they had brought the world to the new standard, they asked good manners in the PC world. This can be compared with the first step of man on the moon?- theoretically all knew it was possible. In practice it has been, frankly, a little:)
who fall apples
worldwide, Apple has achieved recognition from professionals in the field of creativity?- designers, architects, Directors. The mission, which took over the company 30 years ago, was «to help people to implement their ideas.
the fact that Apple computers are much more stable than PC, they work faster in their respective programs. Apple originally developed computer with enhanced multimedia capabilities, it was the first computer to work with graphics in principle?- for example, graphics from Adobe was created specifically for Mac.
«Alcester», the head of sales
— recently the number of sales of these computers began to increase, but the percentage of Mac’s compared to the PC is very small. Mostly Mac buy professionals working in the areas of design, printing, video editing, however, increases the number of sales and individuals who buy these computers to work at home. Increased, for example, the number of sales of laptops Mac. This is especially true for the reason that clients, such as, for example, printing, relatively small and volatile.
Buy Apple for simple work, and even very large companies. But the matter is complicated by the fact that the city has very few good experts in Mac and, accordingly, there are problems with service that can’t be good for aspiration such customers to buy a Mac. In fact, regional office for Mac is engaged only in the sale of computers, and the service center does not have. If it appears, it will be possible to tell with confidence that the number of Mac in Yekaterinburg will increase significantly.
Prepress Bureau ’s Mega-Reef», svecokarelian
— Apple Computer I use for work, mainly for color correction and other pre-processing. In this case, Apple computers much easier. First, they are more productive and secondly, Mac OS, there are lots of small differences and built-in functions that facilitate the work.
the Mac can be used in many areas, but mostly publishing, design, video editing, that is, where the product quality is significantly more important than price. You can use Mac at home, but here the limiting factor is the price.
Plus, because of its scarcity Mac in an unprofessional environment viruses for your computer there is much less than the viruses for the PC.
Designers work with them yet and, for the reason that Apple computers are used in professional printing?- networking of PC and Mac problematic still. Although Apple makes attempts to improve the operating system that it was possible (and even said about this possibility, but in practice this occurs infrequently).
Apple IMC Ekaterinburg, head of the representative office
— Indeed, in recent years the interest of the end user of Apple products has increased significantly largely due to the iPod and the emergence of low cost options, such as the iMac and Mac Mini, and the new operating system Mac OS 10.4 Tiger, advanced counterparts for several years. As for editing, any «Mac», whether it’s a cheap Mac Mini or PowerMac workstation, can work with standard High Definition, using the supplied software. And considering the fact that appeared on the market a budget cameras in the standard HDDV, we occupy a niche in which competitors yet. In the professional segment there is a stable demand, largely supported by the new developments of computer hardware and software from Apple, as well as the world’s leading software vendors such as Adobe, for example.
Our office has implemented a marketing and service support to partners and end customers, it is planned to organize courses for the training of specialists to work on a Mac. and also the organization of the service center Apple on the basis of one of the partners.
Apple IMC Russia, the press Secretary
— Historically, Apple computers, being high quality and easy to use product that is perfectly suited for solving problems of a number of professional fields, such as publishing and printing business, film and video production, design. This fitness equipment has led to a wide spread of Apple computers in a professional creative environment.
Easy training on our computers, their easy maintenance, safety and durability has led to widespread Apple in education. Suffice it to say that only in Moscow by Apple computers equipped with more than 70 schools and a number of higher and special educational institutions.
recently in Russia is gaining popularity digital media player iPod, has already gained more than 68% of the global market of digital music players on your hard disk. Ease of use and stylish design is so attractive to users, it is possible to speak about existence of some cultural movement of iPod fans. Moreover, Apple’s iPod can be compared to a Trojan horse in the world of PC users, because, according to statistics, 25% of PC users who bought an iPod, after some time thinking about switching to the Apple platform.
If you describe the average Apple user, it’s quite difficult, we can say about the creative personality, from 25 to 80 years, this man leading an active lifestyle, certainly, successful and rich, and not only financial, due to the fairly high cost of computers, but also creatively and intellectually, as the functionality of Apple computers allows to solve a wide range of creative tasks.
Many are working with Apple on a habit, because it’s always worked. But actually today the difference between PC and Mac is not so significant, and for a normal user will not be obvious. Though they say that the interface of the operating system for the Mac is much more user-friendly than Windows (there is an opinion that bill gates just copied the first Apple OSes and competently sold it, made a fortune), and to learn how to use a Mac is much easier than a PC.
When all the nuances of the Apple computers have one significant but they are more expensive than PC of the same capacity and are available in finished form?- configuration changes at the user’s discretion minimum. This, on the one hand, and, on the other?- minus.
Plus for those who want to work on the computer, especially without going into details, what he there, and why it isn’t working as it should.
For those who in childhood not playing in the constructor, and wants to have the ability to upgrade?- this is definitely a minus.
There is another version that Mac prefer women?- it ’intuitive». Douglas Coupland in the book «Slaves «Microsoft» describes the difference between Mac and PC: «Windows maintaiin… sometimes even protivostoyanie. It’s so manly: just go and buy a PC system, spend a lot of time to explore the imaginary teams and reading thousands dialog boxes each time when you wish to change the size of the object or something else… Men accustomed to sit, take orders, perform useless team and feel that they are terribly lucky because they saved $200. Women crave efficiency, elegance… Mac allows them to move within their digital universe exactly as they would like without cluttering up your Bank human memory.
whatever it was, it’s an eternal debate from the category of «what is better, Pepsi or Coca Cola’. Position among the ordinary users of the Apple is slowly losing, anyway, on the Russian market. According to the author, this is mostly because of the lack of marketing. On the other hand, Apple already has its own market, and individual users out there happy, but not more?- after the successful cooperation of Pixar studios (owned by jobs with computers from Apple and Walt Disney Studio became clear what the course has selected the company’s management.
And among modern «nerds»who lives among sterile buildings in Silicon Valley, Apple, in addition to achievements in the technical field, is widely known for its magnificent sculpture garden?- the art should stimulate creativity. From the first day of the company’s existence for Apple computer was not a faceless machine, and a device embodying the dreams.
Victor Tokmakov, it ’s Quadrum», Director
— Computers «Mac», in my opinion, are sold in Yekaterinburg, as well as throughout Russia, compared to the PC, in microscopic quantities. There are three reasons.
the First reason is historical, is associated with the beginning of computerization in the late 80’s, when computers in the country appeared on the orders of very large enterprises. For example, a fairly well-known contract between the Ministry of ferrous metallurgy, which represented more than 400 plants, and the company ’Olivetti». Delivery was carried out mainly by barter schemes. The computers were purchased in large quantities and, of course, buying mostly the cheapest model, and at that time it was, without a doubt, the IBM-PC. Thus, since the first years of the computers IBM-PC has secured an overwhelming numerical superiority.
the Second reason?- this is an extremely small number, and in the early 90s almost complete absence, Russified applications for «Poppy» at an affordable price. At the same time for PC selection of application software (accounting, toys, training programs) was not only much larger but also more affordable price. However, due to the fact that many professional graphics applications first came to light as programs for Apple computers, it is still allowed «Mac» to get famous in Russia, but, unfortunately, only as a computer for professional graphics and desktop-publishing activities.
the Third reason is connected with the second?- this is a problem, more precisely the error distribution tactics. At a time when computers Apple has just appeared on the Russian market, distribution companies have not paid enough attention to the preparation of Russified application programs for them. Although, in my opinion, thanks to the enthusiasm of the fans of «Mac» was a very real possibility to organize this process to the extent necessary and reasonable means, quite comparable with those that were spent on marketing support on a Western model. At the same time for the PC everything went much more smoothly: the presence of a large number of computers formed the infrastructure of the development and adaptation of a wide variety of applications.
But, despite all the difficulties, I was holding on to his «poppy»?- he stood by me in the workplace. And only this year I had to give up and replace it on the PC. Reason — incompatibility with I need software.
Today, the word «Mac», alas, is almost forgotten. The concept of «computer» directly associated with PC. And rarely involves «Mac»?- mainly those lucky ones who had already been acquainted with him.
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Information technology from 20.12.2006: Five stories PRO results
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