Lenta.ru: Apple Inc.

22.10.2014

Apple Inc.

American Corporation, the developer and seller of computer equipment, software for the it and multimedia content

Founded in 1976, an American Corporation involved in the development and sale of computers and various devices, including iPhones and iPods. It also produces software for their devices, provides services for the sale of multimedia content and has its own advertising platform iAd.

Apple Computer was founded on April 1, 1976 by Steve Wozniak (Steve Wozniak) and employees of the company Atari Steve jobs and Ronald Wayne (Ronald Wayne) after their joint good experience on creating a personal computer[74 ], [75 ], [73 ]. The company name was chosen in honor of the Apple farm, which worked for some time jobs [73 ], [80 ]. Initially, jobs and Wozniak owned 45 percent of the company’s shares, the remaining 10 percent was owned by Wayne. However, 12 days after the founding of Apple Ronald Wayne left her, fearing possible financial problems and sold his share for $ 800. Wayne, who was called «a forgotten founder» companies left after the first logo of the company, on which was depicted sitting under an Apple tree Isaac Newton[75 ], [80 ], [25 ].

In July 1976 under the brand Apple I was a production computer, the previously created Wozniak and first introduced them in the club homemade computing devices Homebrew Computer. This computer was only collected the chip, and the user had to add a monitor, keyboard and case[61 ], [80 ], [74 ]. The cost of the computer was $ 666 dollars 66 cents: this figure arose from the price premium store that Wozniak and jobs had sold their computers for $ 500 [74 ], [62 ]. The starting capital for the production of the first batch of Apple I, jobs and Wozniak got the money obtained from the sale of the Volkswagen minibus and programmable calculator, the HP-65 from Hewlett-Packard[73 ], [80 ].

with the Apple I and 200 copies, jobs and Wozniak decided to create ready to use a personal computer, which would users want to buy a home. In 1977, the millionaire Mike Markkula (Mike Markkula) invested in Apple 92 thousand dollars from its own resources and has provided a loan of 250 thousand dollars from Bank of America. He received a third of the company’s shares and became its staff[81 ], [75 ], [80 ], [73 ]. Thanks Markkula was obtained seed capital for the creation of the Apple II — the most successful of the early computer company, the main designer of which was Wozniak. Although the new Apple product had a color display and a small price, he was losing sales from its main competitors: Tandy TRS-80 and Commodore PET[73 ], [74 ], [61 ]. The first Apple II had on Board microprocessor with a capacity of 1 MHz and 4 kilobytes of RAM, subsequent modifications increased memory up to 64 kilobytes. Already in 1981, the Apple II started ahead of the competition by producing device for reading and writing magnetic disks (the world’s first five-inch floppy disks), and program for creating and editing spreadsheets, which determined the popularity of the platform in small business. Modification of the Apple II was produced until 1993 special distribution received in schools and colleges in the United States [61 ], [76 ]. The cost of computers in this series was a little over $ 1,000[80 ], [61 ], [74 ].

In 1977, was the newly created company logo as painted in the colors of the rainbow bitten Apple in honor of colored functions the Apple II [75 ]. In may 1980 he released a series of Apple computers III, which was to occupy a niche corporate computers cost from 3 thousand dollars. It jobs attempted to abandon active cooling hardware to make your computer run silent, however, the cases used passive cooling technology, and problems with components has led to the fact that the percentage of defective computers was almost 100 percent and demanded an exchange under warranty, which led to the commercial failure of the series and its inability to compete for the market with IBM, whose platform IBM PC along with its clones, in the end, conquered almost the entire market for personal computers[74 ], [61 ], [80 ].

in Parallel, Apple and jobs, access development, Xerox PARC, is engaged in the creation of the Lisa computer, which was designed for corporate users (the cost of the computer was about 10 thousand US dollars) and had the first commercial graphical user interface (GUI) [72 ], [74 ], [73 ], [64 ]. In December 1980, Apple launched 4.6 million shares (about 7 percent) of its shares on the stock exchange, setting a record for initial capitalization, which amounted to $ 1,778 billion dollars, making millionaires of many of the company’s employees had options on its securities. At the time of conclusion of the shares on the stock exchange jobs belonged to the largest share of — 7.5 million shares (about 12 percent), Markkula — 7 million shares (about 11 percent), and Wozniak — 4 million shares (about 6 percent) [64 ], [80 ], [82 ].

In 1980, under pressure from the CEO and President Mike Scott (Mike Scott) jobs was stripped of the title role in the development of Lisa, and then was transferred to another project — Macintosh (so named for the variety of apples). The release of the Apple Lisa in 1983, also ended a commercial failure due to the high cost and limited software, but was released a year later, the Macintosh, also had a graphical interface, developed under the leadership of Steve jobs, he managed to win the graphics and publishing niche, thanks to the emergence of the software package, PageMaker and laser printer Apple LaserWriter[80 ], [76 ], [37 ], [73 ]. By that time, in 1983, the annual Apple’s revenue exceeded one billion U.S. dollars [74 ].

After the resignation of Scott from all posts in 1981, President and CEO of the company took Marcella. In 1983, at the suggestion of the jobs he was replaced by former head of Pepsi Co John Scully (John Sculley). However, in 1985 because of disagreements with the new Director General and a temporary drop in sales of the Macintosh, jobs was forced at first to go with managerial positions in the company, and then left Apple and founded a computer company NeXT and design Studio Pixar[80 ], [76 ], [73 ]. Wozniak has stopped working at Apple even earlier, in 1981 after the crash. He finally retired in the company in 1987, being the owner of 4 percent of the shares (the shares subsequently decreased significantly) [82 ], [47 ], [80 ].

According to some observers, in 1987, Apple missed the opportunity to compete for the market for personal computers, prohibiting licensed production of their company computers Apollo [80 ]. By the end of 1990-ies platform Apple came in second place in sales after IBM-PC compatible computers [61 ]. Since released in 1989 Macintosh Portable Apple began to develop a line of small form factor computers and workstations, and released in 1991 Apple PowerBook asked a sample for design and layout of modern laptops[37 ], [80 ].

In 1992 Scully announced the launch of the world’s first computer-PDA Apple Newton with the function of handwriting recognition, however, the commercial success of the new device has not received [70 ]. In those same years, Apple has presented the public prototypes of several devices that never went to series: among them was a phone tablet PC W.A.L.T. laptop with a GSM module PowerBop, the set-top box and Apple Paladin — a device that combines the functions of a computer, printer, Fax and scanner [57 ], [79 ]. Also tried the company to enter the market of game consoles with console Pippin [37 ]. Growing backlog from Apple computers IBM-PC led in 1993 to the resignation Scully from the post of General Director of the company, but to correct the situation austerity failed and his successor in the post of Michael Spindler (Michael Spindler) [80 ].

In 1994, Apple switched to the PowerPC, the main suppliers were Motorola and IBM[80 ], [58 ].

In August 1995, Microsoft released Windows 95, which contributed to a further increase in the popularity of the platform IBM PC and fall of Apple’s sales in that year the company sold 4.5 million computers (about 10 percent of the total PC market), but by 1998, the number of units sold fell by almost two times — to 2.7 million. One of the main reasons Apple was losing its operating system Mac OS, which was lost on many parameters Windows 95 [73 ], [61 ].

In 1996, Apple was headed by Gilbert Amelio (Gilbert Amelio on), which attempted to improve the financial statement to the company, but she continued to bear the loss. Some time manual Apple chose which of the operating systems of other manufacturers to take for the development of Mac OS. As the most likely candidate was considered BeOS, but in February 1997 under the leadership of Amelio Apple for $ 400 million acquired NeXT to her experience in the field of operating systems. Jobs returned to Apple first to unpaid post of Advisor, but then, after the offset Amelio, was temporary and, finally, with 2000 — a permanent CEO and member of the Board of Directors of the company[78 ], [61 ], [73 ], [71 ], [80 ].

One of his first actions as Director-General of the jobs stopped the production of unprofitable series devices Apple Newton [70 ] and revised company policies. Already in 1999 due to the entry into production of a new series of iMac computers. the distinctive feature of which was the design (for example, became popular computer Bondi Blue iMac), Apple sales increased to 3.8 million units[61 ], [80 ], [37 ].

the year 2001 was one of the most important in the history of the company. Released a new operating system Mac OS X, which became the basis for open kernel based on UNIX and elements of operating systems, FreeBSD and NetBSD included in the shell of the practices of the company NeXT [61 ]. In the same year was released a music player, iTunes and mp3 player iPod. which at first could only be used by owners of Apple computers [60 ], [69 ]. In April 2003, the company launched an online store selling music, which was named as the player, iTunes. After conclusion of the contract between Apple Computers and the five major music labels — Warner Music Group, Universal Music Group, EMI, Sony and BMG — most of the songs in it were available for 99 cents[77 ], [60 ], [66 ], what was often called the revolution in online distribution of music and even a turning point in the fight against music piracy. Until 2007 all files in iTunes were provided with a copy protection DRM [60 ], [77 ], later it was abandoned [49 ]. It is noteworthy that the store itself was rescued about 10 percent of the price of the track, the rest of the money went to the labels and other copyright holders [66 ].

In 2003, Apple launched its own Internet browser Safari [68 ]. In March 2005, Apple announced that it waives the PowerPC architecture and releases new iMac and MacBook with Intel processors. For users of older software was released emulator of old processors, also Apple released BootCamp program, which allowed to install on your computers operating system Microsoft Windows. Despite the complaints of users on the performance degradation of old programs, in General, according to observers, the transition to Intel was held without major problems[63 ], [58 ].

In 2007, the official name of Apple Computers was changed to Apple Inc. [52 ]. In the same year, Apple entered the mobile phone market, releasing the first iPhone model. This device quickly became popular and has had a major impact on the entire industry of mobile phones: not only increased the number of phones form factor of the iPhone, but most manufacturers have moved to a model of the App Store — store repository of software for the iPhone, when selling apps through which the author received 70 percent of the cost, and the remaining 30 percent received Apple[56 ], [45 ], [46 ]. In 2009, the total number of apps downloaded from the App Store reached billion [45 ].

By the beginning of 2010, Apple has firmly held in the United States niche fashion expensive computers cost over $ 1000, all the company’s computers took about 8-9 percent of the market in the U.S. and around the world — only about 2-3 percent [26 ], [40 ]. A significant share of the profit the company generated sales of iPods and mobile phones [36 ].

In January 2010, Apple announced the release of Internet-tablet iPad [31 ], [32 ], and in April of the same year it became known that the company will launch its advertising system iAd in iPhone applications [29 ].

Since its inception, Apple has sued because of a trademark with Apple Corps — record label founded by the Beatles in 1968. For the first time against Apple Computers with them, a lawsuit was filed in 1978, after three years, the parties have agreed that the company jobs will have no contact with the music business, and will pay Apple Corps 80 thousand dollars. In 1991, after one of Apple computers was equipped music midi port, Apple Corps filed a second lawsuit: then, the parties again agreed to resolve the issue without going to court, and a computer company paid 26.5 million dollars, promising not to sell music (they meant, primarily, the physical media). However, in 2003, Apple Corps has accused Apple Computers in violation of this promise, when they launched the iTunes store. Apple Corps sued, but lost it in 2006[60 ], [66 ], [65 ]. In 2007 was announced that music and computer company entered into a new agreement, details of which were not disclosed [53 ], [54 ], however, the Beatles appeared in iTunes only at the end of 2010[21 ], [65 ], [54 ].

In October 2009, the Finnish Corporation Nokia accused Apple of violating patents, and in December of the same year, Apple filed a response to the lawsuit and accused Nokia of patent infringement on iPhone[35 ], [22 ], [20 ]. In June 2011, Apple and Nokia have reached a patent agreement, according to which Apple had to pay the Finnish company for using its development. The compensation amounts were not disclosed [14 ].

in the Spring of 2011, Apple and Samsung Electronics exchanged claims for infringement of patents. Apple filed in California court on the Korean Corporation, accusing it of copying the iPad and iPhone. Samsung, in turn, filed in the courts of Japan, South Korea and Germany patent lawsuits in which he accused Apple of violating five patents [16 ], [15 ]. In August 2011, the Dutch court ruled on the preliminary ban on sales of Samsung’s Galaxy S, Galaxy S II and Ace in ten European countries [11 ], [12 ]. By early September of the same year in Germany was banned the sale of tablets Samsung Galaxy Tab models 7.7 and 10.1: according to the court, they are partially copied iPad[6 ], [13 ], [7 ].

In 2004, 2009 and January 2011 Steve jobs, who by that time was discovered a malignant tumor of the pancreas, was forced to take a vacation. The duties of the General Director in his absence was performed by Timothy cook[18 ], [17 ], [19 ]. 24 August 2011, Steve jobs resigned as CEO of Apple Inc. His place was taken by cook, and the jobs became Chairman of the Board of Directors of the company[10 ], [8 ], [9 ]. After eighteen months, October 5, 2011, jobs died of cancer [4 ], [5 ]. The new Chairman of the Board of Directors was elected biochemist Arthur Levinson (Arthur Levinson), a member of the Board since 2000 [2 ], [3 ]

since 2003 member of the Board of Directors is the former Vice-President al Gore [67 ], [78 ]. Also until 2009 member of the Board of Directors of Apple was Google CEO Eric Schmidt [39 ]. In 2010, Apple surpassed Microsoft in market capitalization reached 245 billion dollars, becoming the most expensive hi-tech company in the world [27 ], [23 ]. Operating profit Apple by the end of 2009 amounted to 11,74 billion dollars [83 ]. The company at that time worked for more than 34 thousand employees [23 ]. As at 2010 major shareholders of the company were various investment funds, the largest share belonged to the group Fidelity Investments, owning 6 percent stake in Apple. Steve jobs belonged to about 0.6 percent of the company’s shares; however, the value of this share by the end of 2011 amounted to more than two billion dollars[34 ], [24 ], [1 ]. After the death of Steve jobs, his will was not made public, but the press believed that his share in the company was transferred to the widow and children [1 ].

Apple is often criticized for high prices for their products[51 ], [42 ], [43 ], [55 ], especially in Russia, where the iPhone and the company’s computers were sold with a significant markup. For example, this has led to the fact that in Russia «grey» import phones was more official [44 ]. On the question, will Apple release cheap laptops (netbooks) jobs replied that he did not know how to create a good computer that would cost cheaper than $ 500[38 ], [42 ].

Many observers of the press was accused Apple deliberately worsen the performance of its own products, for example, supplying together with iPhone and iPad standard USB connectors, not allowing you to expand the memory standard flash cards and forbidding to install third-party programs, however, the latter restriction is easily treated with the help of hacking (the so-called jailbreak)that Apple considered illegal [33 ], [30 ]. Complaints of users caused the lack of Adobe Flash support on mobile Apple products [50 ]. In a letter to Adobe in 2010, jobs said that Flash support will not appear in the future [28 ], [48 ]. Also Apple was accused of poor working conditions in the factories of its contractors in China[59 ], [41 ].

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