Every autumn, we are pleased with its Golden-scarlet outfit all familiar inhabitant of forests — Norway maple (Acer platanoides). However, it — only one of 150 representatives of a very interesting kind of Maple (Acer) in the Maple family (Aceraceae)growing in different parts of the Northern hemisphere. Types and forms of maples are so diverse in appearance and colour of the leaves that seem to fall since spring starts to paint them all with my colors.
Almost all maples — deciduous plants, but in the tropics and subtropics meet evergreen species, but to grow them, we can only greenhouse conditions. Of the species diversity of the genus Acer in the middle lane in the open ground can be grown about 30 species, and it is not given decorative forms created by human hands.
About the merits of maples. Of course, maple (especially its forms) is very decorative with its foliage, but it is not the only advantage. It forms a dense crown, which protects from summer solar heat and dust of the town and is a good absorber. Some maples — a beautiful crust. Maples — excellent bee plants. Blooming in early spring. The first in our conditions, flowering Maple, silver (second decade of April), last — Maple, Ginnala and Maple Tatar (the third decade of may). So, with 1 ha of forest, for example, Maple, bees under favorable conditions collect up to 200 kg of honey. In early March maples usually starts abundant SAP. Maple juice is very useful, it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of gout, scurvy, liver and kidneys. It is used for making maple sugar, which, according to scientists, it is much more useful beet.
Norway Maple (Acer platanoides) — the most famous and popular of its kind. Large deciduous tree up to 20-30 m In the wild it grows in Europe, the Caucasus and the Balkans in mixed plantings. Quite demanding nutrient and soil moisture. On poor rocky soils, Sands, salts grows poorly and sooner dies. Does not tolerate water stagnation. Frost-resistant, withstands temperatures up to -40°not damaged by late spring and early autumn frosts. Especially rapidly in the first 10 years. Gives the growth of shoots 30-60 cm per season and abundant shoots from the stump. Shade tolerant, especially at a young age. Tolerates transplant. This powerful tree is perfect for parks, but hardly anybody wants to see him at his dacha.
However, breeders developed a number of ornamental varieties of maple. So, the form of Drummond (f. Drummondii) — it is a tree up to 10 m tall. This size, it reaches to 30 years. Has a very colorful leaves. Their edge-cut uneven hem cream color. And the young shoots and leaves of — sometimes with a pinkish tinge. Unlike many other forms with colored leaves, in the shade it does not turn green, but retains the unusual colouring of the leaves. The form of the Crimson king (f. Crimson King) leaves when leaves are blood red, then will become darker, almost purple, and the fall of the upper side of the sheet acquires a violet sheen. The tree grows up to 20 m, but it will require 20-30 years.
the Tatar Maple (Acer tataricum) in nature is widespread in the southern regions of the European part of Russia, in the Caucasus and in the mountainous Crimea. Large shrub or small tree to 10 m tall, with almost black bark. Shade tolerant, drought-resistant, hardy and undemanding as to soil. Tolerates a haircut. Hardy in an urban environment. Especially rapidly in the first 5-7 years. This plant, which improves the soil.
home of the Maple Ginnala, or riverine (Acer ginnala) — far East, China, Japan. Small tree to 6 m tall or shrub. Frost-resistant. The soil is low. Tolerates urban conditions, trim and molding. In his youth, is growing rapidly. Especially decorative in the fall, when its leaves turn a fiery red.
Maple lgnomecanvas or sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) in the wild this species is found in Western Europe, the Carpathians, Asia Minor, the Caucasus. Deciduous tree up to 40 m tall. Live up to 300 years. Grows quickly. Poorly reconciled with dry and damp soils, does not tolerate salinity, quite shade tolerant. Thermophilic, but the climatic conditions of the middle band stand. Has valuable timber. Has many decorative forms with leaves of different colors. Maple form Purpurella (f. purpurea) — very ornamental tree up to 25 m with beautiful foliage. The upper part of the leaf normal green color, and the bottom — Burgundy, sometimes with a purple tinge. When the wind rustles the leaves, the impression is amazing.
Maple or American (Acer maple) — deciduous tree up to 20 m in height, native to the Central and Eastern regions of the United States. The compound leaves consisting of 3-5 leaflets, resembling the leaves of the ash. Frost-resistant. Photophilous, soil prefers moist and well-drained. Makes a good urban environment. Short-lived, lives no more than 80-100 years, in street plantings — not more than 50 years. Very brittle. Grows quickly, especially at a young age, reaching to 3-4 years of 1-1,5 m Due to its rapid growth and unpretentiousness was widely used, along with poplar trees, the greening of cities. However, its fragility and low decorative qualities are forced to use it as a provisional breed to achieve fast greening effect in combination with decorative, but slow-growing breeds. Has several garden forms much larger than decorative main form.
field Maple (Acer campestre) — deciduous tree up to 25 m in height, sometimes high shrub, native of Europe, Crimea, Caucasus and Asia Minor. Hardy, shade-tolerant. Grows slowly. Tolerates urban conditions. Live to 150 years.
the silver Maple, or sugar (Acer saccharinum) is found in the South-Eastern part of the Atlantic coast of North America. Deciduous tree up to 30 m tall. His carved leaves on top green, bottom — is silver-white. Trunk bark is light gray in color. Water — and sun-loving, develops best on well-drained rich soil, gas, dust and dysostosis. Grows quickly. Frost-resistant.
the Maple selenamarie, or patrially (Acer tegmentosum) — deciduous tree up to 15 m high, found growing wild in the far East. Beautiful plant with decorative trunk, covered with a smooth green bark with white longitudinal stripes in young plants and grey — in adults. Winter-hardy. Shade tolerant. Grows relatively quickly. Hygrophilous. Demanding to fertility and soil moisture.
Seeds. Well reproduce such maples, as Ginnala, Tatar, Holly, field, box elder, silver. Collected in autumn, seeds are sown on the beds, they sprout in the spring of next year. Feature maple silver — early maturing seeds (early June), it quickly loses viability if the humidity will drop to 35%. Therefore, unlike the seeds of other species must be sown immediately after collection.
Can these species be propagated by cuttings. But get a low percentage of rooted rastenyte as they are easy to propagate by seeds, then I think not worth it and take cuttings. The exception would be the case if the mother plant does not bear fruit.
Budding. Decorative shapes, such as Maple Drummond, the Crimson king, and the others, grafted on the maple of the same species. In our conditions the plants in the open ground instill in the spring from April to end of may and summer from mid July to August.
as rootstock take the maple. The Scion will serve as the annual shoots of decorative forms of maple. The top of the rootstock before inoculation better to shorten, leaving 1-2 internodes above the point of inoculation. On the rootstock at the site of the injection, remove the leaves. Under one of his kidneys with a sharp knife, make a transverse incision in 3-5 mm. Top-down cut the kidney along with the crust and part of the wood to the bottom of the incision. Before the vaccination site not to touch! In the same way, cut off the Bud on the Scion and carefully carry it on foot to the place of grafting on rootstock. The Bud of the Scion is placed on the seat cut kidney rootstock. Bandage vaccinated elastic film. When the implanted kidney moves in growth, young shoot is tied to the trunk of the rootstock, so he grew up exactly. After a sprout will Mature, rootstock part is removed from the top to the vaccination site. Remove and harness, when it begins to compress the place of grafting and rootstock shoots, which will appear from the awakened kidneys.
to prevent this, the stock makes a few vaccinations, as not all of them will survive. And you can grow an interesting instance instill per plant buds of various forms of maple. Present: will, for example, wood, one half of the crown with red leaves, and another — with Belokamennaya.
to Transplant 3-5-year-old plants to a permanent place in autumn or spring. For them suitable ordinary garden soil. At the bottom of the pit it is desirable to put the humus or prepararsi manure. Special care maples do not require. You need to carry out weeding and hoeing. Pour in the dry season: a bucket of water in 1-2 weeks.
the Maple selenamarie, sycamore, silver, decorative shape maple and other species will look good in single and group planting on the lawn. And the maple Ginnala, field, Tatar can be a great impassable hedges. Maple is less decorative than other maples. Quickly it grows only the first 15-20 years, then growth stops, and he usually starts showering, to die. The trunk always curved. For the hedge he is not suitable because it shoots very fragile.
article Summary: Species of maples. acer