the South Korean Corporation
Founded in 1938, the South Korean Corporation, one of the largest in the country: it accounts for nearly a fifth of the total GDP of the Republic. Division of Samsung Electronics is engaged in the manufacture of television sets, mobile phones and memory chips.
Samsung was founded in 1938 in Seoul, then bore the name Kaze: the city at that time was the capital occupied by the Japanese in Korea. The founder of the Corporation was the entrepreneur Lee Byung-Chol (Lee Byung-chull), who shortly before that, in 1936, he founded a small factory for the production of rice flour [56 ]. It went bankrupt due to the outbreak of the second Sino-Japanese war, but Lee Byung-Chol created in Daegu trading company Samsung Trading Company, which specialized in the supply of noodles, dried fish and fruits in China and Manchukuo [56 ], [59 ]. The company name was translated as «three stars» — making it two character also had a symbolic value «a large and eternity». Three stars until 1993 in various forms have been the logo of the company, after which they were replaced by a blue oval with the name of the company[56 ], [44 ], [57 ].
In 1939, Samsung bought the brewery Chosun Brewery and started to produce rice vodka, wine and alcoholic beverage «the stones». The company has survived the Second world war, in 1948, was transformed into Samsung Corporation, and began to trade sugar, sewing machines, steel and fertilizers. The geography of trade of the company has also expanded to Hong Kong and Macao [56 ]. In 1950, the attack by the North Korean army during the Korean war completely destroyed the business Lee Byung Chol. According to the official history of the Corporation, accumulating Corporation miraculously managed to save, and after the occurrence of the UN forces and stabilize the front Lee Byung-Chol began to restore your business [56 ].
In 1953, Lee Byung-Chol created a sugar factory Cheil Sugar, and a year later launched the textile industry Cheil Textiles, producing the jackets under the brand name Golden Tex, which became very popular in South Korea [56 ]. In 1961, all assets Chol were collected in the Corporation Samsung Corporation, the Chairman of its Board of Directors became the Lee Byung-Chol [56 ]. By the early 1960s Samsung together with Goldstar, Deawoo and Hyundai has become one of the largest corporations in the country (chaebol), the company was engaged in chemical and textile industry [56 ] In the 1950s the years Samsung has acquired more than half of the banks in South Korea, but in 1963 they were nationalized, and then Lee Byung-Chol consolidated financial assets in insurance companies Insurance Samsung. It was noted that the business Samsung and other chaebol was one of the pillars of the ruling regime of Park Chung Hee (Park Chung-hee) [38 ], [56 ], [10 ], [24 ], [14 ], [58 ]. In 1969, Samsung in collaboration with a Japanese company Sanyo began producing television sets in the city in Suwon Samsung Electric Industries [38 ], [56 ]. After 10 years the Department has expanded the scope of activities on calculators, refrigerators, washing machines and air conditioners [56 ].
In the 1970s, the years Samsung has got its own hotel Shilla Hotel, were based industrial units, including Samsung Heavy Industries [56 ]. The company has engaged in the production of ships (Samsung Shipbuilding) and semiconductors (Samsung Semiconductor) [56 ]. By the end of the 1970’s the Corporation was already regarded as the largest Korean chaebol [53 ].
After the death of Lee Byung Chol in 1987, the company was inherited by his children. The third son of Lee Byung Chol, Li Gong Hee (Lee Kun-hee), he occupied the post of Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Corporation [62 ], [59 ]. In 1990-ies from Samsung separated part of the subsidiaries, which was headed by his other children: network Shinsegae (shopping centers), CJ (food production) and Hansol paper production) [25 ], [68 ], [21 ].
If in the early 1990’s the share of Samsung accounted for more than two percent of the GDP of South Korea, in 2010 the turnover of the Corporation (172 billion) accounted for nearly one fifth of the gross national product of the country[65 ], [15 ], [58 ]. In 1998, Li Hong Hui took the post of Chairman of the Board of Directors and Samsung Electronics (by that time merged with Samsung Semiconductor [62 ]), becoming the General Manager of [59 ]. It is a division of Samsung Electornic the fastest growing in the first decade of the XXI century. It is specialized in the production of memory modules and other computer chips, LCD panels, laptop and cell phones. In 2001, the company has taken global leadership in sales of LCD panels for TVs and computer monitors[24 ], [15 ], [60 ], [55 ].
In 2005, the company has developed a flexible LCD display, and in 2007 one of the first switched to 30-nanometer technology in the manufacture of memory modules [15 ], [55 ], in 2010, was developed 20-nanometer technology [55 ]. In the same year, Samsung, Intel and Toshiba signed an agreement on the transition to 10-nanometer process [13 ]. As at 2010 Samsung struggled with Sony and LG Electornics for first place in sales of TVs in the world[24 ], [14 ].
the Samsung Corporation has supported the implementation of format optical media Blu-Ray, Sony promoted [49 ], and was one of the major companies that have already implemented wireless technology WiMAX [38 ].
Samsung has released smartphones using the operating system Google Android and Microsoft Windows Phone [55 ], [40 ]. Until 2010 also produced smartphones with Symbian [12 ], [17 ]. At the end of 2010, the company issued a continuation of the line cell phones Google — Nexus S [11 ]. In the same year, Samsung announced the Galaxy Tab, which was considered as the strongest competitor of Apple iPad [14 ].
Produced by Samsung chips and displays bought and its direct competitors: in 2010, the main buyers of these products were Sony, Apple, Dell and HP, and Sony spent on the purchase of Samsung components about a billion dollars [20 ].
Leadership Samsung in the production of microelectronic components and chips attracted the attention of antitrust authorities. In 2005, the Corporation pleaded guilty to inflating prices and was sentenced by a court in San Francisco to a fine of $ 300 million [48 ]. In 2010 the European Union has accused Samsung and Infineon, Toshiba, Hynix and several other corporations in price collusion. Samsung was fined for 145 million euros [22 ].
in Addition to Samsung Eletronics in group Samsung has included dozens of companies dealing with electric power, industrial chemistry and high-tech developments. Joint venture with Samsung BP Chemicals engaged in the production of hydrogen, dyes, acetic and other acids. Still a Corporation owned hotel business and insurance companies [69 ], [60 ]. Samsung has released and military products, including robotic machine gun [29 ].
Construction company Samsung Construction & Technology was also named one of the most important departments of the group. Among the most significant of its construction, while on the other projects mentioned tower No. 2 skyscraper Petronas Tower in Kuala Lumpur (1998) and completed in 2010 skyscraper «Burj Khalifa» in Dubai. The first building at the time of completion it was the tallest skyscraper in the world, and the second — the tallest manmade structure on earth. After completing work on the «Burj Khalifa» the company for one year entered into construction contracts totaling in excess of $ 8 billion[55 ], [19 ], [28 ], [27 ].
a Division of Samsung Techwin (formerly — Samsung Aerospace) was engaged in the development and production of aircraft engines and helicopters [62 ], [34 ]. In 1994, Samsung has organized together with Nissan car production, but because of the crisis in the Asian markets was forced to sell his Renault. In 2002 we released the first cars under the brand Renault Samsung Motors, the company only 19.9 percent belonged Samsung[31 ], [61 ].
In the field of design for your Samsung products attracted third-party companies such as Porsche, Pininfarina and Artemy Lebedev Studio [47 ], [52 ]
the Headquarters of Samsung and its basic units located in Seoul [46 ]. The main production and research centres Samsung are located in South Korea, China, India, USA, Brazil, great Britain, Poland and Kazakhstan [67 ], [32 ]. In 2008 the company started to produce TVs at a new plant in Kaluga region[55 ], [41 ].
In 2007, Li Hong Hui resigned from the post of head of Samsung because of the scandal associated with tax evasion. He was sentenced to prison, but eventually was pardoned and returned to the post of Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Corporation[66 ], [26 ], [15 ]. It remained the largest private owner of shares in the company (about 3.4%), and in 2009 was the richest Korean, his fortune was estimated at 3.9 billion dollars[43 ], [33 ], [64 ].
the Total revenue of the Corporation in 2001 amounted to $ 4.5 billion, and the assets was estimated at 124 billion dollars [59 ]. In 2009, the corporate income amounted to 13.8 billion, and assets reached 294,5 billion dollars [60 ].
In 2009, Samsung had about 275 thousand people [60 ]. In 2010, Samsung was 55 largest Corporation in the world (according to Forbes, on the basis of aggregate data on market capitalization, sales, profits and valuation of assets) [23 ].
According to the 2010 major stake in Samsung Electronics, minority investors, the largest of which is Citibank (7.25% of the shares). More than 15 percent of the company’s shares owned by the management companies and the Samsung Corporation. Property of the group itself was not so clear: it was reported that through intermediary firms it is entirely controlled by the children and grandchildren Lee Byung-Chol[64 ], [39 ], [36 ]. As President and CEO of Samsung Electronics until June 2012 he held Choi Ki-sang (Choi Gee-sung), Chairman of the Board of Directors was Lee Eun Woo (Lee Yon-woo) [66 ].
June 7, 2012 Chapter Samsung was elected Out Of the hen (Kwon Oh Hyun), who previously held the post of Director of production chips and displays. Company’s former President Choi Ki-sung led the group to develop corporate strategy, in addition, he remains on the Board of Directors. The position of chief operating officer retains Jay Lee (Jay Lee), the son of the Chairman of the Board of Directors of Samsung Li Hong Hui [1 ].
In 2008, Samsung ranked second in sales of cell phones in the world after Nokia [37 ]. In USA selling cell phone companies were below [18 ]. In Russia, the main competitor Samsung was Nokia, the Finnish company usually been the leader in sales of cell phones, but in 2004, and then in 2010, Samsung was able to briefly capture the championship. The share of Samsung in the Russian market of cellular phones was about 35 percent[55 ], [14 ], [16 ]. Department of Samsung in the CIS and Baltic countries since 2009 head of the Chi Out With (Chiwon Suh) [35 ], [9 ].
in the Spring of 2011, Apple and Samsung Electronics exchanged claims for infringement of patents. Apple filed in California court on the Korean Corporation, accusing her that she was to create an Internet-tablet Galaxy tab and Nexus S smartphone copying the iPad and iPhone. Samsung, in turn, filed in the courts of Japan, South Korea and Germany lawsuits in which he accused Apple of violating five patents [8 ], [7 ]. In August 2011, the Dutch court ruled on the preliminary ban on sales of Samsung’s Galaxy S, Galaxy S II and Ace in ten European countries [4 ], [5 ]. By early September of the same year in Germany was banned the sale of tablets Samsung Galaxy Tab models 7.7 and 10.1: according to the court, they are partially copied iPad[2 ], [6 ], [3 ].
Li Gong Hee made the sponsorship of sports and cultural events is one of the most important measures of advertising the company’s products. Since 1997 Samsung acted as one of the main sponsors of the summer and winter Olympic games [59 ], was the title sponsor of a dozen Korean teams in various sports [59 ]. Since 1997 Samsung sponsor of the Russian Olympic Committee, in 2007 the Corporation signed a ten-year contract for General sponsorship Committee [42 ], [63 ]. In 2005, Samsung and football team «Chelsea » English «the Premier League» concluded a five-year sponsorship contract in the amount of 55 million pounds. In 2009, the partnership was extended for another 5 years [51 ], [30 ]. Also Samsung has sponsored tennis cups [54 ]
In Russia, the Corporation has sponsored a number of cultural and entertainment projects, including the Bolshoi theatre, the State Hermitage and «idol» [45 ], [50 ].
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